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SRTM BOLIVIA IMAGES


Information on:
Hi-Resolution Tiff | Shaded Relief and Colored Height, Pando Province, Northern Bolivia
Hi-Resolution Tiff | Anaglyph: Shaded Relief and Height as Brightness, Iturralde Structure, Bolivia
Hi-Resolution Tiff | Stereo Pair with ASTER Image, Iturralde Structure, Bolivia
Hi-Resolution Tiff | Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Iturralde Structure, Bolivia
View the Bolivia Image Gallery

Shaded Relief and Colored Height

Shaded Relief and Colored Height

Pando Province, Bolivia, and adjacent parts of Brazil and Peru are seen in this visualization of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data covering part of the Amazon Basin. Most of this region is covered by tropical rainforest and is still largely unaltered by development, though new roads are providing increased access to the area, leading to changes in the landscape. SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional look at the landforms of this region, and the Amazon Basin in its entirety, and will be particularly helpful in understanding the hydrologic patterns as environmental management becomes increasingly important.

River drainage across this area flows generally east-northeast away from the nearby Andes Mountains. The most prominent river channels seen here are the Purus River in the northwest (upper left) and the Madre de Dios River, which crosses the south central (lower central) part of this view. The Beni and Mamore Rivers combine with the Madre de Dios in the eastern (right central) area to form the Madeira River, which flows northeast to eventually meet the Amazon River near Manaus.

The Trans-Amazon Highway crosses the northern half of the scene, and subtle evidence of rainforest clear cutting, facilitated by this easy access, is apparent just north of the scene center, even at the low resolution of this display (740 m or 2428 feet). As seen here, clear cutting patterns in the rainforest typically show a pattern of parallel lines. SRTM mapped the shape of the Earth's solid surface (not exclusively the ground surface), which includes to some degree land covers such as forests. Thus, SRTM data are capable of revealing deforestation patterns.

A combination of visualization methods was used to produce this image, based on shading and color coding. A shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellowish and reddish tans, to white at the highest elevations. A measure of relative local topographic height was added as brightness to enhance the contrast of stream channels to their surrounding terrain.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 536 by 710 kilometers (332 by 440 miles)
Location: 10.4 degrees South latitude, 67.25 degrees West longitude
Orientation: North toward the top
Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model
Date Acquired: February 2000

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Anaglyph: Shaded Relief and Height as Brightness

An 8-kilometer (5-mile) wide crater of possible impact origin is shown in this anaglyph view of an isolated part of the Bolivian Amazon derived from a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model. The circular feature at the center of the image, known as the Iturralde Structure, is possibly the Earth's most recent "big" impact event recording collision with a meteor or comet that might have occurred between 11,000 and 30,000 years ago.

Although the structure was identified on satellite photographs in the mid-1980s, its location is so remote that it has only been visited by scientific investigators twice, most recently by a team from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in September 2002. Lying in an area of very low relief, the landform is a quasi-circular closed depression only about 20 meters (66 feet) in depth, with sharply defined sub-angular "rim" materials. It resembles a "cookie cutter" in that its appearance "cuts" the heavily vegetated soft-sediments and pampas of this part of Bolivia. The SRTM data have provided investigators with the first topographic map of the site and will allow studies of its three-dimensional structure crucial to determining whether it actually is of impact origin.

Thick vegetation in part defines the surface that the SRTM radar sees as it maps the terrain. Much of the local "topography" in this area is a measure of tree height (typically up to 13 meters, or 40 feet). This effect is easily seen here, where the ground surface relief is very low. Interpretative separation of the ground surface and vegetative features typically relies upon recognition of their characteristic patterns.

This anaglyph was created by deriving an image of the terrain from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. The terrain image depicts a combination of topographic shading (north slopes bright) and topographic height (higher elevations bright). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect 3-D measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: 0.33 degrees latitude by 0.33 degrees longitude (about 37 by 36 kilometers or 23 by 22 miles)
Location: 12.6 degrees South latitude, 67.7 degrees West longitude
Orientation: North at top, Latitude-Longitude Projection
Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet)
Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

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Stereo Pair with ASTER Image

An 8-kilometer (5-mile) wide crater of possible impact origin is shown in this stereoscopic view of an isolated part of the Bolivian Amazon. The view is derived from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite image and a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model. The circular feature covering much of the image, known as the Iturralde Structure, is possibly the Earth's most recent "big" impact event recording collision with a meteor or comet that might have occurred between 11,000 and 30,000 years ago.

Although the structure was identified on satellite photographs in the mid-1980s, its location is so remote that it has only been visited by scientific investigators twice, most recently by a team from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in September 2002. Lying in an area of very low relief, the landform is a quasi-circular closed depression only about 20 meters (66 feet) in depth, with sharply defined sub-angular "rim" materials. It resembles a "cookie cutter" in that its appearance "cuts" the heavily vegetated soft-sediments and pampas of this part of Bolivia. The SRTM data have provided investigators with the first topographic map of the site and will allow studies of its three-dimensional structure crucial to determining whether it actually is of impact origin.

This stereoscopic image was generated by first draping the ASTER satellite image over the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing) or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

Thick vegetation in part defines the surface that the SRTM radar sees as it maps the terrain. Much of the local "topography" in this area is a measure of tree height (typically up to 13 meters, or 40 feet). This effect is easily seen here, where the ground surface relief is very low. Interpretative separation of the ground surface and vegetative features can typically be made by recognition of their characteristic patterns. However, by integrating the ASTER data into the visualization, spectral colors help the recognition of terrain features (green vegetation and blue water).

The ASTER instrument is a cooperative project between NASA, JPL, and the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and it flies aboard NASA'a Terra satellite.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect 3-D measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: 16.3 kilometers (10.1 miles) North-South by 14.5 kilometers (9.0 miles) East-West
Location: 12.6 degrees South latitude, 67.7 degrees West longitude
Orientation: North at top, Latitude-Longitude projection
Image: ASTER band 1,2,3 combinations as red, green, blue.
Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet),
ASTER 15 meters (about 49 feet)
Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), June 29, 2001 (ASTER)

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Shaded Relief with Height as Color

An 8-kilometer (5-mile) wide crater of possible impact origin is shown in this view of an isolated part of the Bolivian Amazon from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The circular feature at the center-left of the image, known as the Iturralde Structure, is possibly the Earth's most recent "big" impact event recording collision with a meteor or comet that might have occurred between 11,000 and 30,000 years ago.

Although the structure was identified on satellite photographs in the mid-1980s, its location is so remote that it has only been visited by scientific investigators twice, most recently by a team from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in September 2002. Lying in an area of very low relief, the landform is a quasi-circular closed depression only about 20 meters (66 feet) in depth, with sharply defined sub-angular "rim" materials. It resembles a "cookie cutter" in that its appearance "cuts" the heavily vegetated soft-sediments and pampas of this part of Bolivia. The SRTM data have provided investigators with the first topographic map of the site and will allow studies of its three-dimensional structure crucial to determining whether it actually is of impact origin.

Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. North-facing slopes appear bright and south-facing slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with brown and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect 3-D measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude (about 111 by 111 kilometers or 69 by 69 miles)
Location: 12.5 degrees South latitude, 67.5 degrees West longitude
Orientation: North at top
Image: Elevation data, colored height with shaded relief
Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet)
Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

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