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Galileo Europa Mission (GEM)
Fact Sheet



P47170_thumb.jpg The Galileo Europa Mission (GEM) is a highly focused follow-on to Galileo's Jupiter system exploration and a precursor for future missions to Europa and Io. GEM will conduct a detailed study of Europa over 14 months, then plunge repeatedly through the Io Plasma Torus to reach volcanic Io.

Major Science Objectives


The GEM has three phases:




Science Instruments/Investigators

Instrument Investigator/Team Leader Objectives
Remote Sensing
SSI Michael Belton
National Optical Astronomy Observatories
Galilean satellites, high resolution, atmospheric small-scale dynamics
NIMS Robert Carlson
Jet Propulson Lab
Surface/atmospheric composition thermal mapping
PPR James Hansen
Goddard Institute for Space Studies
Atmospheric particles, thermal/reflected radiation
Charles Hord
University of Colorado
Atmospheric gases, aerosols, etc.
Fields and Particles
MAG Margaret Kivelson
Strength and fluctuations of magnetic fields
EPD Donald Williams
John Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory
Electrons, protons, heavy ions
PLS Lou Frank
University of Iowa
Composition, energy, distribution of ions
PWS Donald Gurnett
University of Iowa
Electromagnetic waves and wave particle interactions
DDS Eberhard Grun
Max Planck Institut fur Kernphysik
Mass, velocity, charge of submicrometer particles
HIC Edward Stone
California Institute of Technology
Spacecraft charged-particle environment
Radio Science Celestial Mechanics John Anderson
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Masses and internal structures of bodies from spacecraft tracking
Propogation H. Taylor Howard
Stanford University
Jupiter/Satellite radii and atmospheric structure from radio propagation



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